海面溢油及浒苔遥感监测研究进展*
Status and Trends of Remote Sensing Study to Monitor Sea Surface Oil Spill and Enteromorpha

过杰1**,过爽2
GUO Jie1,GUO Shuang2

(1.中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所,山东省海岸带环境过程重点实验室,山东烟台264003;2.河南城建学院电气与信息工程学院,河南平顶山467000)
(1.Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation,Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Yantai,Shandong,264003,China;2.School of Electrical and Information Engineering,Henan University of Urban Construction, Pingdingshan, Henan, 467000, China)

摘要:海面溢油和浒苔灾害已经成为当今主要的海洋生态环境问题,而基于卫星遥感影像提取海面溢油和浒苔信息是监测其动态变化的一种有效手段,因此本文对国内外海面溢油及浒苔遥感监测技术进行归纳整理。光学遥感数据多波段比值法是最常用的海面溢油监测方法。另外,合成孔径雷达(SAR)不受雨云影响,在灾害监测中发挥着越来越重要的作用,而利用灰度值或后向散射系数变化来判断溢油或浒苔是SAR常用的方法。从现有的研究可以看出:遥感监测海上溢油及浒苔范围发展最为成熟,已经业务化运行;然而,遥感监测溢油量、溢油类型及浒苔生物量仍然处于试验阶段。遥感海洋灾害的监测要由定性走向定量,真正实现实时、连续、快速、准确,仍需要多种平台和多源遥感数据相结合,调整传感器的空间分辨率,开发小型、新型传感器。
关键词:遥感监测    海面溢油    浒苔   生态环境
中图分类号:P736.22      文献标识码:A      文章编号:1002-7378(2016)02-0073-06
Abstract:Marins oil spill and enteromorpha have now become a major form of marine pollution and harmful to our environment and society.Based on satellite remote sensing image to the dynamics of marine oil spill,which extension has become a timely and effective means. The monitoring capabilities and development directions of domestic,international of marine oil spill and enteromorpha are summarized in this paper.The optical remote sensing data is the most popular data used to combine the multiband ratio method as the most commonly adopted monitoring method.On the other hand,synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is not affected by rain and cloud, which has played a more and more important role in disaster monitoring. The grey value or backward scattering coefficient changes is the commonly used method in SAR to interpret images of enteromorpha or oil spill.From the point of  research view in current,remote sensing to monitor marine oil spill and enteromorpha range are already developed and used.However,amount, types and biomass of oil spill and enteromorpha using remote sensing monitoring are still experimental. Disaster monitoring by remote sensing in the future needs the combination of different platforms and multisource remote sensing data to adjust the sensor spatial resolution,and the development of small size,new sensors,realizing realtime,continuous,rapid  accurate disaster monitoring,and improve remote sensing monitoring.
Key words:remote sensing monitoring,oil spill on sea surface,enteromorpha,ecological environment

*国家自然科学基金委员会与俄罗斯基础研究基金会合作交流项目(4141101049),国家自然科学面上基金项目(41576032,41176160)和国家海洋局北海分局渤海中部公共海域沉积物现场微生物修复项目(QDZC20150420002)资助。
 

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发布日期:2016/6/23