蓬莱19-3平台溢油事故对渤海大型底栖生物群落结构的长期影响*
Longterm Effects of Penglai 19-3 Oil Spill Event on the Macrobenthic Community Structure in Bohai Sea

周政权1,2,李晓静1,2,陈琳琳1,刘欣1,李宝泉1**
ZHOU Zhengquan1,2,LI Xiaojing1,2,CHEN Linlin1,LIU Xin1,LI Baoquan1


(1.中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所,山东烟台 264003;2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049)
(1.Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Yantai,Shandong,264003,China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing,100049,China)


摘要:【目的】研究渤海海域底栖生物群落状况,探明2011年发生的蓬莱193平台溢油事故对该海域底栖生物群落结构的长期影响。【方法】根据2014年夏季对渤海海域32个站位底栖生物的采样调查资料,并与历史数据进行比较,分析渤海海域底栖生物的群落结构、物种组成和底质状况。【结果】渤海海域32个站位共鉴定出大型底栖生物191种,其中多毛类环节动物83种,甲壳动物40种,软体动物42种,棘皮动物15种,其它类群动物11种。优势种为凸壳肌蛤(Musculus senhousei)。调查海域大型底栖生物平均丰度为676.88 ind/m2,变化范围为15~11 555 ind/m2,低于溢油前水平;平均生物量为30.77 g/m2,变化范围为0.09~141.55 g/m2,高于溢油前水平。生物量的主要贡献者为棘皮动物,丰度的主要贡献者为软体动物,底栖生物群落结构的小型化有减缓趋势。Shannon-Wiener物种多样性指数、Margalef物种丰富度指数和Pielou物种均匀度指数平均值分别为3.11±1.20,2.89±1.40和0.82±0.22。ABC曲线显示渤海海域正处于中度扰动状态,溢油区各站位ABC曲线均显示底质状况较好,但个别站位生物量起点较低且曲线整体偏左,说明有向中度干扰发展的趋势。【结论】溢油事故3年后,受溢油影响的底栖生物群落已得到不同程度的恢复。
关键词:蓬莱19-3平合溢油    大型底栖生物    生物多样性    物种组成    群落结构    ABC曲线
中图分类号:P714+.5      文献标识码:A     文章编号:1002-7378(2016)02-0092-09
Abstract:【Objective】In order to understand the long term impact of Penglai 19-3 oil spill event on benthic ecosystem since 2011,this research was arranged to study the present quality of benthic ecosystem in Bohai Sea.【Methods】The macrobenthic community was quantitatively researched based on data carried out at 32 sampling stations from August to September in 2014,Bohai Sea.【Results】191 macrobenthic species in total were obtained in 32 sites in Bohai Sea,most of the them belong to Polychaeta(83),Crustacea(40),Mollusca(42), and Echinodermata(15).The dominanted species is molluscan Musculus senhousei (Benson,1842),as a disturbance tolerant species which could affect the stability of macrofauna community.The total mean abundance is 676.88 ind/m2,varies from 15 ind/m2 to 11 555 ind/m2,which is lower than the value of surveys result before the oil spill happened. The total mean biomass of this area reached 30.77 g/m2,varies from 0.09 g/m2 to 141.55 g/m2,which is higher than the previous level before the oil spill happened.The main contributor of biomass value is from echinodermata,while mollusca contributes the most to abundance value.Comparing to previous studys,the trend of macrobenthic miniaturization in body size seems to slow down.The mean value of ShannonWiener diversity index,richness index and evenness index was 3.11±1.20,2.89±1.40 and 0.82±0.22,respectively. Abundance Biomass Curves indicated that the macrofauna communities in the research region had been in moderate disturbance.【Conclusion】 It showed that macrofauna communities in oil spill areas had recovered to different degree in the past three year of oil spill events.
Key words:Penglai 19-3 oil spill,macrozoobenthos,biodiversity,species composition,community structure,abundance biomass curves

*中国科学院135计划项目(Y455011031),中国科学院院重点部署项目(KZZD-EW-14)和中国科学院海洋专项(XDA11020403,XDA11020702)资助。


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发布日期:2016/6/23